China attaches great importance to the development of electric vehicle technology. During the “Tenth Five-Year Plan” period, the “863” plan electric vehicle major technology project was launched, and the “three verticals and three horizontals” (three verticals: hybrid vehicles, pure electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles) were established; three horizontals: batteries, motors, and electric vehicles. It has achieved a large number of technological innovations in electric vehicles. Since the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan”, China has put forward the strategy of “energy-saving and new energy vehicles”, and the government has paid great attention to the research and development and industrialization of new energy vehicles.
In June 2006, the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” 863 plan energy-saving and new energy vehicle major projects passed the demonstration. Its key task is to promote the research and development and demonstration operation of fuel cell vehicles, realize the large-scale industrialization of hybrid electric vehicles, expand the application range of pure electric vehicles, and further expand the promotion and application of alternative fuel vehicles; promote energy-saving and new energy vehicle industry policies, regulations and Research and formulation of relevant standards, improve relevant testing and evaluation capabilities, form intellectual property protection and investment and financing service systems, build a public service platform for energy-saving and new energy vehicles, and establish the China Energy Conservation and New Energy Automobile Industry Alliance: grasp the transformation of transportation energy power system A major opportunity to establish an independent R&D and innovation system that combines production, education and research with enterprises as the main body.
From 2006 to 2007, China’s new energy vehicle industry has achieved significant development. China’s self-developed pure electric, hybrid and fuel cell new energy vehicle products have come out one after another; hybrid and pure electric buses have achieved large-scale demonstrations: Pure electric vehicles have been exported in batches: The research and development of fuel cell cars has entered the world’s advanced ranks.
On July 11, 2008, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (hereinafter referred to as the Ministry of Science and Technology) and Beijing held an Olympic new energy vehicle demonstration operation handover ceremony. At the delivery ceremony, a total of 595 vehicles of various models were delivered to serve officials, athletes, coaches, media reporters, and social audiences. The 595 new energy vehicles include: 20 fuel cell vehicles jointly developed by Shanghai Power, Tongji University and Shanghai Volkswagen; 40 belt-driven starter/generator integrated machines developed and produced by Chery Automobile Co., Ltd. generator, BSG) technology vehicles, 10 hybrid vehicles with integrated starter (generator, ISG) technology; 25 Jiexun hybrid vehicles developed and produced by Changan Automobile Co., Ltd.: Jinghua Bus Co., Ltd., Beijing 50 pure electric buses jointly developed and produced by the University of Science and Technology and other units; 5 pure electric buses developed and produced by Zhongtong Bus Holding Company; 10 Jiefang hybrid buses and 5 Pentium hybrid vehicles developed by FAW Group; Dongfeng Motor 15 Dongfeng hybrid buses and 410 pure electric field vehicles developed and produced by the company; 3 low-floor fuel cell buses developed by Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd. in conjunction with Tsinghua University. According to statistics, during the Beijing Olympics and Paralympics, this A total of 595 vehicles ran 3.714 million kilometers, carried 4.417 million passengers, and performed 970 official vehicles. China’s self-developed new energy vehicles passed this large-scale, centralized, and high-intensity operation assessment, using scientific and technological achievements and actual conditions. The action achieved “zero emissions” in the Olympic center area traffic, and “low emissions” in the surrounding areas of the center area and on the Olympic traffic priority routes.
During the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, there were also more than 1,000 new energy vehicles operating in the Expo venue and surrounding areas. Among them, the Expo Park uses new energy vehicles to achieve zero emissions from public transportation, including 120 pure electric buses, 36 supercapacitor buses and 6 fuel cell vehicles through demonstration operations in the form of buses, 140 pure electric venue vehicles and 100 fuel cells Sightseeing vehicles can meet public demand through specific forms, which can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 13,000 tons; around the park, hybrid vehicles that meet the national IV emission standards are used to achieve low emissions.
In order to promote the large-scale and industrialization of energy-saving and new energy vehicles, and to accelerate the structural adjustment and leapfrog development of China’s automobile industry, after the Olympics, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology issued the “Notice on Carrying out the Pilot Work for Demonstration and Promotion of Energy-saving and New Energy Vehicles” “It is decided to carry out pilot projects for demonstration and promotion of energy-saving and new energy vehicles in 13 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Changchun, Dalian, Hangzhou, Jinan, Wuhan, Shenzhen, Hefei, Changsha, Kunming, and Nanchang. Encourage pilot cities to take the lead in promoting the use of energy-saving and new energy vehicles in public service areas such as public transportation, rental, official services, environmental sanitation, and postal services. The notice clarified that the central government will focus on granting one-off fixed subsidies for the purchase of energy-saving and new energy vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles, pure electric vehicles and fuel cells in pilot cities. The subsidy standard is mainly determined based on the basic price difference between energy-saving and new energy vehicles and similar traditional vehicles, and appropriately considering factors such as scale effects and technological progress. The notice also requires the local finance to arrange certain funds to provide appropriate subsidies for the construction and maintenance of supporting facilities for energy-saving and new energy vehicles to ensure the smooth progress of the pilot work. At present, the number of pilot cities for demonstration and promotion of energy-saving and new energy vehicles has increased to 25, and a total of 12 cities have been added to Tianjin, Haikou, Zhengzhou, Xiamen, Suzhou, Tangshan, Guangzhou, Shenyang, Chengdu, Nantong, Xiangfan, and Hohhot.
In the “13th Five-Year Plan”, the new energy vehicle technology development goals were formulated. This is the current overall strategic planning layout approved by the National Science and Technology Expert Group. It is divided into four levels: basic scientific issues, system integration technologies, common core technologies and integration Development and demonstration. The “Thirteenth Five-Year” new energy vehicle plan inherits the guiding ideology established in the previous development and continues to adhere to the basic technical system of “three verticals and three horizontals”, namely vertical development of fuel cell power systems, hybrid power systems, and pure electric power systems, and horizontal development Power battery and battery management, motor drive and power electronics, electronic control and intelligent technology.
At present, China’s electric vehicle development has entered a critical period, facing both major development opportunities and severe challenges. There are still many problems that need to be solved in the development of China’s electric vehicles, such as the lack of competitive advantages in core technologies, insufficient investment by enterprises, and the lack of full potential of the government’s coordination and overall planning. On the whole, China’s electric vehicle research and development has not started late and the development has not been slow. However, due to the relatively weak foundation of traditional automobiles and related industries, insufficient investment, and the gap still exists, the pressure of mid-to-high-end technology competition is increasing. Therefore, we must step up efforts to promote the transformation of China’s auto industry to innovation-driven, seize the commanding heights of technology, cultivate new energy vehicle strategic emerging industries, lead industrial reforms, and ensure the sustainable development of China’s auto industry.