At present, most automobile manufacturers and automobile technology research centers have started or are planning to develop new energy vehicles. With the diversification of energy as the core, the development of new energy vehicle technology mainly has the following three trends.
Biofuels generally refer to liquid, solid or gaseous fuels composed or transformed by living organisms. Unlike traditional fuels such as petroleum, coal, and nuclear energy, biofuels are emerging renewable fuels with good storage and transportation properties, and are new fuels that can replace petroleum. Currently, the main biofuels developed worldwide include biodiesel, bioethanol and biobutanol.
Since the 1970s, affected by traditional energy prices, environmental protection and global climate change, countries around the world have paid increasing attention to the development of biofuels. At present, on a global scale, the United States is the largest biofuel producer, followed by Brazil. The United States has adopted legal means to force the addition of biofuels such as 2% biodiesel or 5% bioethanol to automobile fuels. On August 16, 2011, the United States launched a $510 million plan to promote the development of biofuels in the United States. Brazil is a big country for oil exploration and bioethanol production, but as early as 1973, Brazil initiated the development of ethanol instead of oil. Sugarcane is the main raw material for Brazil’s bioethanol. Before 2006, Brazil was the world’s largest bioethanol producer and exporter. Brazil’s ethanol is generally provided in two ways, one is high-concentration ethanol with a volume fraction of 85% to 100%, and the other is to blend ethanol with a volume fraction of 5% to 25% in gasoline. From February 15, 2015, the government increased the volume fraction of ethanol blending from 25% to 27%.
In the context of the global focus on the energy crisis, the development and utilization of renewable resources and the increase in domestic bioethanol consumption, companies are racing to develop and invest in bioethanol produced from corn.
②Develop hybrid technology
For more than ten years, the world’s major automobile industry groups have successively invested huge amounts of money in the research and development of electric vehicle technology. At present, they have transitioned from the laboratory development and test stage to the small-batch production stage, and further shifted to the large-scale industrialized batch production stage. However, the battery, one of the key components of electric vehicles at this stage, has problems such as low energy density, short lifespan, and high price, making the cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles unable to compete with traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. In this environment, hybrid electric vehicles that integrate the advantages of internal combustion engine vehicles and electric vehicles have become the most feasible product solutions at the moment, and have become a hot spot for the development of new vehicles worldwide.
Hybrid electric vehicles combine an internal combustion engine, a motor, and a battery with a certain capacity through a control system. The motor can supplement the torque required for starting and accelerating the vehicle, and it can also store and absorb the excess power of the internal combustion engine and the braking energy of the vehicle. The hybrid power system is highly efficient. It can be used with a small displacement engine to achieve good power performance, which can greatly reduce fuel consumption and reduce pollutant emissions. Moreover, hybrid electric vehicles have relatively low battery requirements, which can avoid many problems caused by batteries. Although hybrid vehicles have not achieved zero emissions, their comprehensive indicators such as power, economy, and emissions can meet current stringent requirements, and can alleviate the contradiction between automobile demand, environmental protection and oil shortages. Hybrid electric vehicles have become a milestone in the industrialization of new-type electric vehicles.
③Develop fuel cell technology
A fuel cell vehicle is a vehicle that uses electricity generated by an on-board fuel cell device as power. The fuel used in the vehicle-mounted fuel cell device is high-purity hydrogen or high-hydrogen reformed gas obtained by reforming hydrogen-containing fuel. The working principle of a fuel cell vehicle is that the hydrogen used as a fuel in the fuel cell of the vehicle undergoes a redox chemical reaction with oxygen in the atmosphere to generate electrical energy to drive the motor to work. The motor drives the mechanical transmission structure in the vehicle, and then drives it. The front axle (or rear axle) of the automobile and other walking machinery structures work to drive the electric automobile forward. Compared with ordinary electric vehicles, the difference in power is that the electricity used by fuel cell vehicles comes from the on-board fuel cell device, while the electricity used by electric vehicles comes from a battery charged by the grid. Therefore, the key to fuel cell vehicles is fuel cells. Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that can effectively control the chemical reaction between fuel and oxidant and directly convert the chemical energy in it into electrical energy. It is an energy converter that converts chemical energy in fuel into electrical energy. It is known as The fourth power generation method besides thermal power, hydropower and nuclear power. Although the fuel cell is called a “battery”, it is actually different from a battery. The battery belongs to the category of energy storage, and the fuel cell does not store energy. In essence, it is just an energy converter, more like a “generator”. . Compared with traditional power generation methods, fuel cells have their special features. In the reaction process, the fuel cell energy conversion process has no open flame combustion activity, so the energy conversion efficiency is not limited by the “Carnot cycle”. In addition, the fuel cell also has diversified fuels, low noise, cleaner exhaust, and The advantages of low environmental pollution, good maintainability and high reliability.
Fuel cell vehicles are generally considered to have broad development prospects. Therefore, the United States, the European Union, Japan, and South Korea have invested a lot of money and manpower in the research of fuel cell vehicles. Major companies such as General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Toyota, Honda, and Mercedes-Benz have already Fuel cell models have been developed and are already running on roads, and they are generally in good condition. In recent years, China’s investment in fuel cells has also been increasing. During the Beijing Olympics and the Shanghai World Expo, fuel cell cars and buses were used for demonstration operations.